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為什么日本保守派不愿承認慰安婦問題?

更新時間:2019/9/19 20:32:14 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

A Filmmaker Explored Japan’s Wartime Enslavement of Women. Now He’s Being Sued.
為什么日本保守派不愿承認慰安婦問題?

TOKYO — When Miki Dezaki decided to make a documentary for his graduate thesis, he examined a question that reverberates through Japanese politics: Why, 75 years later, does a small but vocal group of politically influential conservatives still fervently dispute internationally accepted accounts of Japan’s wartime atrocities?

東京——當米吉·出崎(Miki Dezaki)決定拍一部紀錄片作為畢業作品時,他審視了一個在日本政壇一再回響的問題:為什么75年后,一群極具政治影響力的保守派人士——一個人數不多但十分引人注目的群體——仍然在激烈駁斥已被國際社會接受的日本戰時暴行敘述?

Specifically, Mr. Dezaki focused on what historians call the Imperial Army’s sexual enslavement of tens of thousands of Korean women and others in military brothels during World War II. He explored in detail the conservatives’ case that the so-called comfort women were in fact paid prostitutes.

具體而言,出崎關注的是史學家所稱的日軍性奴役問題,在二戰期間,來自朝鮮等國的數以萬計女性淪為日本皇軍的軍妓。他詳細研究了保守派的觀點,即所謂的慰安婦實際上是有償妓女。

Ultimately, Mr. Dezaki was unpersuaded — he concluded that the conservatives were “revisionists,” and used terms like “racism” and “sexism” to characterize some of their claims. Now, five of them are suing him for defamation.

最終,出崎沒有被說服——他得出結論,保守派是“歷史修正主義者”,并使用“種族主義”和“性別歧視”等詞來描述他們的一些主張。現在,五名保守派人士正以誹謗罪起訴他。

The conservatives whom he interviewed in the movie are part of a group that has influence at the highest levels of the Japanese government. They have helped shape what Japanese children are taught, what works of art can be shown, and, perhaps most significantly, how Japan conducts important aspects of its foreign policy, most notably with South Korea.

他在電影中采訪的保守派人士屬于一個在日本政府最高層具有影響力的群體。他們參與構建了日本兒童所受的教育,決定什么藝術作品可以展出,或許最重要的是,他們還參與塑造日本外交政策的重要方面,尤其是對韓國的外交政策。

Any reference to the women can raise the conservatives’ ire. Last month, organizers of an international art fair in Nagoya closed an exhibition after receiving terrorist threats over a statue symbolizing one of the Korean comfort women.

任何涉及這些女性的言論都可能激起保守派的憤怒。上個月,名古屋一場國際藝博會上的一尊象征韓國慰安婦的雕像招致恐怖主義威脅,組織者被迫關閉了一場展覽。

Mr. Dezaki, his supporters and outside historians say the lawsuit over his film shows how nationalists seek to silence those who challenge them, while at the same time using any outlet they can to spread views that run counter even to an official 1993 Japanese government apology to the comfort women.

出崎、他的支持者以及外界的歷史學家認為,圍繞他影片的訴訟表明,民族主義者想要讓所有挑戰他們的人不能發聲,同時他們使用一切可能手段在傳播的說法,甚至與1993年日本政府向慰安婦的正式道歉都是相抵觸的。

“The overarching theme of the film is, why do they want to erase this history?” the 36-year-old Mr. Dezaki said.

“這部電影的主題是,他們為什么要抹去這段歷史?”36歲的出崎說。

The 1993 apology has been a festering wound for those on the political right, including Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who have insisted that the Korean women were not sex slaves because there is no proof that they were physically forced into the brothels.

1993年的道歉對日本政治右翼來說是一個不斷惡化的傷口,這其中包括日本首相安倍晉三(Shinzo Abe),他曾堅稱這些韓國女性不是性奴,因為沒有證據表明她們是被迫進入妓院的。

Diplomatic, economic and security ties between Japan and South Korea have reached their lowest point in years, a rupture that can be traced to the long-raging dispute over what Japan still owes for abuses committed during its colonial occupation of the Korean Peninsula, including its treatment of the comfort women.

日本和韓國之間的外交、經濟和安全關系已達到多年來的最低點,這一破裂源起于一場激烈的爭議,即日本如今應為殖民占領朝鮮半島期間的惡行承擔什么樣的責任,其中也包括對待慰安婦的行為。

The conservatives have generally avoided the kind of reckoning that Germany has undergone in atoning for the Holocaust, as they argue that the actions of Japan during the war were no worse than those of other nations, and should not damage national pride.

保守派一般都回避德國在為大屠殺贖罪時所進行的那種清算,他們辯稱,這是因為日本在戰爭期間的行為并不比其他國家更糟糕,不應損害民族自豪感。

Many of the most vocal right-wing critics of the mainstream view of comfort women are older Japanese, but a younger cadre of social-media-savvy activists regularly pounce on those who describe the women as sex slaves.

許多直接批評慰安婦問題主流觀點的右翼人士都是年紀較大的日本人,但在年輕一代善用社交媒體的日本人中也有一群活動人士,一見到有人稱慰安婦為性奴就會發起抨擊。

“It is an issue that people get wild-eyed over,” said Jennifer Lind, an associate professor of government at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and a specialist in Japanese war memory.

“這個問題會讓人很激動,”新罕布什爾州達特茅斯學院(Dartmouth College)政府學副教授、研究日本戰爭回憶的珍妮弗·林德(Jennifer Lind)說。

She said passions also run strong in South Korea, where activists accept no deviations from the narrative that the women were brutally enslaved. In 2015, a court ordered a South Korean scholar to redact numerous passages from a book that suggested that the relationship between soldiers and the comfort women was more complex.

她說,這個問題在韓國也會引發激烈的情緒,活動人士不接受任何偏離女性被殘酷奴役的說法。2015年,一家法院命令一名韓國學者對其書中的許多段落進行修改,書中暗示,士兵和慰安婦之間的關系并沒有那么簡單。

Mr. Dezaki’s two-hour documentary, “Shusenjo: The Main Battleground of the Comfort Women Issue,” has been shown commercially in Japan and South Korea and will be shown on college campuses in the United States this fall.

出崎的這部兩小時的紀錄片《主戰場》(Shusenjo: The Main battle of The Comfort Women Issue)已經在日本和韓國上映,并將于今年秋天在美國的大學校園上映。

When he began his research, Mr. Dezaki, a second-generation Japanese-American who grew up in Florida and learned little about the comfort women from his Japanese immigrant parents, said he wondered whether historical accounts in the Western news media “had gotten it wrong somehow.”

出崎是第二代日裔美國人,在佛羅里達州長大,從他的日本移民父母那里,他沒有得到多少對慰安婦的認識,而他想知道,西方新聞媒體中對這段歷史的敘述是不是“存在什么謬誤”。

To understand the mainstream view, he interviewed historians, advocates and lawyers who described their evidence. Documents have proved the Japanese military’s direct role in managing the brothels, and hundreds of women have described harrowing conditions in so-called comfort stations.

為了理解主流觀點,他采訪了歷史學家、倡導者和律師,他們給出了自己的證據。有文件資料證明日本軍方在妓院管理方面發揮著直接作用,數百名女性描述了所謂慰安所的悲慘狀況。

But the mainstream experts Mr. Dezaki interviewed were also open about the lack of direct proof that the Japanese military physically abducted the women — a fact that the conservatives seize on — and forthright about the wide-ranging estimates of the numbers of women involved.

但是,接受采訪的主流專家也明確表示,沒有直接證據證明日本軍方實際誘拐了這些女性——保守派抓住了這一事實——而且他們坦言,對慰安婦人數的估計存在很大差異。

In the film, Mr. Dezaki highlights a 1944 American Army document, cited by the conservatives, in which 20 Korean comfort women interviewed in Burma are described as “nothing more than” prostitutes who were “attached to the Japanese Army for the benefit of the soldiers.” That same document says the women were recruited under “false pretenses.”

出崎在影片中著重講述了一份1944年的美國陸軍文件,這份被保守派引為證據的文件形容20名在緬甸接受問詢的韓國慰安婦“無非是”一些妓女,“作為給士兵的福利而隨軍。”同一份文件稱,這些女性是以“欺騙手段”被招進軍中的。

Yoshiaki Yoshimi, a retired history professor who uncovered key documents describing the military’s management of the brothels, said that by “denying one point,” the conservatives “seek to deny the big picture.”

退休歷史教授吉見義明(Yoshiaki Yoshimi)發現了描述日軍管理軍妓院的關鍵文件,他表示,通過“否認這一點”,保守派“試圖否認一切”。

Much of the film dwells on the nature of coercion. In the end, Mr. Dezaki said, he was persuaded by the scholars who say the women were forced or deceived into providing sex to soldiers against their will. In the movie, he concludes that to remember the comfort women is to fight “against racism, sexism and fascism.”

影片大部分情節著眼于強迫的性質。出崎在片尾稱,他被學者說服,他們稱這些女性是被強迫或欺騙,違背她們的意愿為士兵提供性服務。他在片中作結稱,對慰安婦的銘記,就是“對種族主義、性別歧視和法西斯主義”的反抗。

“I did not defame them,” Mr. Dezaki said of the conservatives. “I made a film that documents the issue and the people involved.”

“我沒有詆毀他們,”出崎談及保守派時說。“我拍了一部影片記錄這個問題,以及牽扯其中的人。”

He added: “Information is revealed in the film, and how the audience interprets this information is up to them.”

他還說:“片中披露了信息,至于觀眾如何解讀這些信息,取決于他們。”

But those suing Mr. Dezaki say he is biased. “‘Revisionist’ is a word with the greatest malice,” said Nobukatsu Fujioka, vice president of the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform, whose business card reads “Let’s create Japanese who are proud!”

但起訴出崎的人稱他存在偏見。“‘歷史修正主義’是個有著最大惡意的詞,”日本新歷史教科書編纂會(Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform)副會長藤岡信勝(Nobukatsu Fujioka)說,他的名片上寫著“讓我們創造我們引以為豪的日本!”

Another plaintiff, Shunichi Fujiki, wrote in an email, “I believe this is a fight to clarify who is the one fabricating history.” He added that in the United States, liberals “label conservatives as ‘segregationists,’ ‘KKK!’ ‘the Nazis!’ ‘Hitlers!’ etc., but in actuality, the segregationists they’re referring to are themselves.”

另一名原告藤木俊一(Shunichi Fujiki)在郵件中寫道,“我認為這是一場澄清是誰捏造歷史的抗爭。”他還表示在美國,自由派“稱保守派是‘種族隔離主義者’、‘3K黨’、‘納粹分子!’‘希特勒!’等,但實際上,他們所指的種族隔離主義者正是他們自己。”

Kent Gilbert, an American lawyer and celebrity television commentator who has lived in Japan for more than 30 years, said that the film did not misrepresent his views, but that it was “a propaganda hit piece.” The comfort women, he said, were just prostitutes.

在日本生活30余年的美國律師、知名電視評論員肯特·吉爾伯特(Kent Gilbert)表示,影片沒有歪曲他的觀點,但影片是個“政治宣傳工具”。他表示慰安婦就是妓女。

“Everybody knows that,” he said. “If you want to see prostitutes, look for the Koreans. My land, they’ve got prostitutes all over the world.”

“人人都知道,”他說。“你要想找妓女,找韓國人。我的天,滿世界都是他們的妓女。”

In addition to defamation, the lawsuit accuses Mr. Dezaki and Tofoo Films, the distributor, of breach of contract, saying the plaintiffs agreed to be interviewed only for his graduate thesis, not a commercial film. The plaintiffs are demanding compensation and a suspension of all public screenings.

除詆毀外,這起訴訟還指控出崎和發行公司東風影業(Tofoo Films)違約,稱原告僅同意為出崎的畢業作業接受采訪,而非一部商業片。原告要求賠償,并暫停所有公映。

All of the interviewees signed release forms giving Mr. Dezaki full editorial control and copyright, said Makoto Iwai, a lawyer who is representing Mr. Dezaki and the film’s distributor. The New York Times reviewed two versions of the release.

出崎和發行商的代理律師巖井真(Makoto Iwai,音)表示,受訪者均簽署了授權協議書,給予出崎完全的編輯控制權和版權。《紐約時報》查看了兩個版本的授權協議書。

Koichi Nakano, a political scientist at Sophia University in Tokyo who was one of Mr. Dezaki’s professors and appears in the movie, said he believed that the plaintiffs were looking for a reason to bring a suit because the film’s “interpretation doesn’t fit entirely what they like.”

在片中出鏡、曾為出崎的教授的東京上智大學(Sophia University)政治學者中野晃一(Koichi Nakano)表示,他認為原告是在找理由提起訴訟,因為影片的“詮釋不完全符合他們的意愿”。

Audiences in Japan and South Korea have said the film helped them understand the comfort women controversy in a new way. At a showing in Seoul at Sogang University late last month, Chae Min-jin, 26, said she “realized that we Koreans didn’t really know the context and the logic in which the right-wingers in Japan asserted themselves after all.”

日本和韓國觀眾表示,影片有助于他們以新的方式理解慰安婦爭議問題。上月底在首爾延世大學(Yonsei University)的一次放映會上,現年26歲的蔡敏珍(Chae Min-jin,音)表示,她“認識到我們韓國人終歸并不真正了解日本右翼分子固執己見的背景和邏輯”。

In Japan, some audience members said the movie revealed information unavailable in their history textbooks. Tsubasa Hirose, a freelance copywriter, wrote on her movie-reviewing blog that she had always thought comfort women “treated people at the hospital, like nurses.”

日本一些觀眾表示,影片披露了他們歷史教科書中所沒有的信息。從事文案工作的自由職業者廣瀨翼(Tsubasa Hirose,音)在她的影評博客中寫道,她一直都以為慰安婦“是在醫院照看人,就像護士”。

“I didn’t know anything,” she wrote, “and I wasn’t given any opportunity to.”

“我一點都不了解,”她寫道,“也沒有任何機會去了解。”

Mr. Dezaki said he did not consider the debate closed.

出崎稱他認為爭論沒有結束。

“My conclusion is not final,” he said. “I don’t know everything. I feel like I can defend my conclusion based off what I know.” But, he added, “I’m always aware that there’s a possibility that one of the factors in my argument might not hold.”

“我的結論不是最終的,”他說。“我并非全都了解。我覺得我可以基于我所知道的為我的結論辯護。”不過他也表示,“我一直都清楚,在我的論點中,也許會有某個因素是站不住腳的。”

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