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發現希臘古城泰涅亞

更新時間:2019/10/5 10:15:12 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

The discovery of the ancient Greek city of Tenea
發現希臘古城泰涅亞

It was a baking hot summer’s day and I was in a car driving through the dramatic hills and lush vegetation of the Peloponnese in Greece. “Look at this whole plain,” my driver, Eleni Korka, said, gesturing out the window. To our left was a huge, flat area, covered in olive trees and scrub bushes. Where it ended, the earth transformed sharply into forested mountains.

那是一個炎熱的夏日,我坐在一輛汽車里,穿過希臘伯羅奔尼撒半島(Peloponnese)上引人注目的山丘和茂密的植被。“看看這整座平原,”開車的科爾卡(Eleni Korka)指著窗外說。在我們的左邊是一大片平坦的區域,被橄欖樹和灌木叢覆蓋著。平地的盡頭是森林覆蓋的山脈。

“The city of Tenea covered this whole place,” she told me. “It’s above sea level and there’s a cool breeze, so the summer palace would probably have been built here.” She pointed to a traditional restaurant tucked under a distinctive, almost square-shaped hill. “And this taverna is built under a watermill,” she said.

“泰涅亞城(Tenea)就埋在這底下,”她告訴我。那時的古城建筑高于海平面,有涼爽的微風,所以度夏的行宮很可能建在這里。她指了指一家坐落在獨特的、幾乎是方形山腳下的傳統餐廳。“這個餐廳的位置當時就是個水磨,”她說。

Korka is one of the country’s top archaeologists. A Greek American, she recently made the biggest discovery of her 40-year career. The lost city of Tenea, which is mentioned in multiple Greek myths and historical texts, such as the ancient legend of Oedipus, the mythical king of Thebes who unwittingly killed his father and married his mother, was uncovered by her and her team last October, buried under the fields we’re now driving past.

科爾卡是希臘裔美國人,也是頂尖的考古學家。她最近公布了她40年職業生涯中最大的發現。泰涅亞這座失落之城,在許多希臘神話和歷史文獻中被提到,比如俄狄浦斯(Oedipus)的古老傳說。傳說中這位底比斯(Thebes)國王無意中殺死了他的父親,娶了他的母親。如今這座古城遺址在去年十月被科爾卡團隊發現,就在我們開車經過的這片土地之下。

According to myth, the city was founded by the Trojans sometime around 1100BC and built by prisoners of war. They chose this spot because it was on the road between Corinth and the ancient settlement of Mycenae. Oedipus was said to have been raised here after being sent away as a baby. And it was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the ancient region of Corinthia in the northern Peloponnese. Until now, however, no-one could work out exactly where it was – or why it disappeared.

根據傳說,這座城市大約在公元前1100年由特洛伊戰俘建造。選擇在這個地方建城,是因為它在連接科林斯(Corinth)和邁錫尼(Mycenae)這兩座古代城池的公路上。據說俄狄浦斯是在嬰兒時期被帶離家鄉后,在這里長大的。它是伯羅奔尼撒半島北部古科林西亞地區(Corinthia)最大、最繁榮的城市之一。然而,直到現在,還沒有人能確切地知道它在哪里——或者它為什么消失了。

The search for Tenea began in 1984. Korka was just five years into her career when she received a call from some local villagers digging a water channel. They had hit an ancient sarcophagus and broken it in half. Korka went to look. “The minute I saw it, I understood it was something unique,” she said. “Sometimes, a find connects with someone. It’s almost spiritual.” The vase-shaped coffin had delicate paintings of lions on the interior and contained a skeleton and offerings to the deceased. “We don’t have another one with drawings like that,” she explained. “We also do not know what ancient paintings looked like… We have no other sample from the Archaic period.”

搜尋泰涅亞的工作始于1984年。那時科爾卡剛剛工作五年。她接到當地村民打來的電話,說開挖水道時碰到一具古老的石棺,把它砸成了兩半。科爾卡去看了看,“當我看到它的那一刻,我就明白它的獨特,”她說。“有時候,某人有一個發現,幾乎是天意。棺材呈花瓶狀,內部繪有精美的獅子圖案,里面有一具骨架和祭品”。她解釋說:“我們此前未曾見過這樣的圖案”,“我們也不知道古代繪畫是什么樣子的……我們沒有其它來自古代的樣本”。

Korka knew Tenea was thought to be in the area, based on ancient historians’ writings, which stated it was somewhere between Corinth and Mycenae. But her young age, inexperience and a lack of further evidence made it impossible for her to get a licence for excavation. “I did not have the confidence or ability to argue why this was so important – it was more intuition-lead,” she said.

但科爾卡根據古代歷史學家的記載,知道泰涅亞就在這個地區,它位于科林斯和邁錫尼之間。但由于她年輕,缺乏經驗,又缺乏進一步的證據,她不可能獲得許可繼續挖掘。她說:“我沒有信心和能力去解釋為什么這一點如此重要——那就是一種直覺吧。”

However, illicit antiquities smugglers had known about the site for years, and would often pay local farmers for vases and coins they came across. In 2010, Korka worked alongside the police and informants to intercept the illegal sale of two statues that had been looted nearby. “The statues proved Tenea was a very prominent city with high levels of art,” she said. She finally obtained permission to dig in the area, and in 2013 the excavation began.

然而,文物販子多年前就知道了這個地方,他們經常花錢向當地農民收購古代花瓶和硬幣。2010年,科爾卡與警方通過線人,截獲了附近被盜賣的兩尊雕像。她說:“這些雕像證明泰涅亞曾是一座名城,藝術水平很高。”她最終獲得了在該地區考古挖掘的許可,并于2013年開始挖掘。

We stopped in the nearby village of Chiliomodi for coffee and pastries. The oldest houses here were built here around 200 years ago, and Korka explained that many of them used ancient rocks, likely from Tenea ruins, that were lying around. The local church has a carving of the Ancient Greek god of winemaking and theatre, Dionysus, embedded in the wall. “We think it was part of an ancient theatre, which we’re still searching for,” she said.

我們在附近的契里奧莫迪(Chiliomodi)村停下來喝咖啡,吃點心。這里最古老的房子有大約200年歷史。科爾卡解釋說,其中許多房子使用的古老巖石,很可能來自于旁邊的泰涅亞遺址。當地教堂的墻上鑲嵌著古希臘釀酒和戲劇之神狄俄尼索斯(Dionysus)的雕像。“我們認為這是古老劇院的一部分,我們仍在研究,”她說。

Chiliomodi is a peaceful, pretty place, largely untouched by tourism. The discovery of the ancient city nearby has brought energy and excitement to the community. In the bakery I noticed bottles of local olive oil named “Tenea”, and there’s a shop of the same name due to open nearby.

契里奧莫迪是一個寧靜、美麗的地方,基本上沒有受到旅游業的影響。附近發現古城,給社區帶來了活力。在面包房里,我注意到幾瓶當地產的橄欖油,名字就叫泰涅亞(Tenea),附近還有一家以此命名的商店即將開業。

Korka and her colleagues Konstantinos Lagos and Antonio Corso, who were driving with us, told me that the project didn’t go exactly to plan to start with. “We had a small team and very little funding,” they said.

科爾卡和她的同事拉各斯(Konstantinos Lagos)以及科索(Antonio Corso)跟我們同一輛車,他們告訴我,這個項目并沒有按照計劃完全展開。“我們的團隊很小,資金也很少,”他們說。

A geophysical survey of the area was carried out by a third party using technology. But when they started to dig, they found nothing – the shapes seen during the survey had been created by the limestone soil. “So we went back to where the first sarcophagus was found,” she said. “Nearby we found about 40 others… they just kept coming out of the ground one after the other. It was like [the folk tale of] Ali Baba.”

第三方利用科技儀器對該地區進行了地球物理探查。但當他們開始挖掘時,卻什么也沒發現。探查儀器中看到的有形狀的物體實際石灰巖土壤。“所以我們回到發現第一個石棺的地方,”她說,“在附近我們還發現了大約40只石棺,一個接一個從地下冒出來。就像阿里巴巴的故事里描述的一樣。”

Next, they discovered part of an ancient road, which lead the team to a Roman mausoleum from around 100BC in which several generations of a family were buried, plus a cistern that would have been used for rituals and sacrifices: “We knew this was outside of the city, so we decided to dig north instead.” Last October, houses were discovered, and the team realised they had finally found the city itself. “Most of the surface level findings had already been taken by looters,” Lagos said. “But most of the actual city is 2m or 3m below ground.”

接下來,他們發現了一個古老的道路的一部分。沿著這條道路,團隊發現了大約公元前100年的一座羅馬陵墓,那里埋葬了一個家族的幾代人。團隊還挖掘出一個蓄水池,可能是用于儀式和獻祭:“我們知道這是在城市以外,所以我們決定在北部繼續挖掘。去年10月,團隊開挖出一些房屋,意識到終于找到了這座城市”。拉各斯說:“大部分地表遺跡已經被搶劫者拿走了”,“但城市的大部分被埋在地下2米至3米處。”

We stopped at a house in Chiliomodi that is being used as the conservation centre. The team excavates during September and October and spends the rest of year analysing artefacts and studying historical texts. Lagos told me that a huge number of coins have been found on the site, proving Tenea was a very wealthy place. “We’ve found around 200 – you normally only get these kinds of numbers after many years of excavations,” he said. He showed me gold leaf imitation coins that would have been buried with the deceased as a gift for the boatman in the underworld. “Most people [at the time] were buried with pennies,” he said. “But in Tenea they used gold.”

我們在契里奧莫迪的一所房子前停了下來,這所房子被改建成了保護中心。該團隊在9月和10月進行挖掘,接下來就是分析文物和研究歷史文獻。拉各斯告訴我,在這個遺址中發現了大量的硬幣,證明泰涅亞曾經非常富有。他說:“我們發現了大約200枚硬幣,通常情況下,只有在多年的考古挖掘之后才能獲得這么多。”他給我看了一些葉子形狀的金幣,這些金幣和死者一起埋入地下,作為給陰間接引者的禮物。他說:“(當時)大多數人下葬時都有硬幣陪葬”,“但在特尼厄他們使用金子”。

Other finds include exquisitely painted vases, engraved lanterns and metal tools used by athletes (to scrape off the oil they cleansed their bodies with), leading the team to believe there is a stadium they have yet to find.

其它發現還包括精美的彩繪花瓶、雕刻的燈和運動員使用的金屬工具(用來刮去他們用來清潔身體的油),這讓團隊相信他們還有一座體育場尚未找到。

“Almost everything in Tenea is unique,” Korka said.

科爾卡說:“在泰涅亞,幾乎所有的東西都是獨一無二的。”

This backs up what the team knew about the society from historical texts: “The people here were different – they were Trojans. They had their own identity,” said Korka. As well as being from a different place – the city of Troy was located in what is now Turkey, around 600km – the finds so far show they used different styles of ceramics and had different burial tradition to those living in nearby Corinth and Mycanae, such as placing the coin on the chest rather than in the mouth, as was common elsewhere in Ancient Greece.

這支持了研究小組從歷史文獻中了解到的關于這個社會的情況:“這里的人是不同的——他們是特洛伊人,有自己的文化特征。”特洛伊城位于現今的土耳其境內,距此約600公里。除了來自不同的地方,目前的發現還包括——與住在附近的科林斯和邁錫尼的居民不同,特洛伊人使用不同風格的陶瓷;特洛伊人有不同的葬禮傳統,比如把硬幣放在胸部而不是嘴里,后者是古希臘很常見的喪葬習俗。

But one of the biggest mysteries surrounding Tenea is why it disappeared. Most other major ancient Greek cities, such as Sparta, Athens and Corinth, remain inhabited to this day. It was unusual for a city as large as Tenea – there were probably around 100,000 inhabitants – to be completely abandoned, and no historical texts give a clue as to why.

關于泰涅亞最大的謎團是它為什么會消失。大多數其它的主要古希臘城市,如斯巴達、雅典和科林斯,至今仍有人定居。像泰涅亞這樣有大約10萬居民的大城市,被完全廢棄是很不尋常的,而且沒有任何歷史文獻可以提供線索,解釋原因。

We headed back to the car and drove up towards the mountains, as Lagos began to explain the team’s theory. “We know Alaric, who was king of the Visigoths, raided Greece in 397AD,” he said. Historians believe he destroyed cities partly to gain wealth, but also to spread Christianity. “We discovered a coin that was issued by Alaric’s people.”

我們回到車上,朝山上開去,此時拉各斯開始解釋他們團隊的理論,“我們知道西哥特人(Visigoths)的國王阿拉里克(Alaric)在公元397年對希臘發動了突然襲擊”。歷史學家認為,他摧毀城市的部分原因是為了獲得財富,但也為了傳播基督教。“我們發現了一枚阿拉里克的族人發行的硬幣。我們還發現了一所房子,大約在那一年被炮彈摧毀。”

However, that wasn’t the end of the story for Tenea. “We have found evidence of inhabitation from 200 years later, but it appears Tenea had lost a lot of its wealth,” he continued, explaining that the finds from this period were not as grand or valuable as the earlier ones. “But after that, there’s nothing.”

然而,這并不是泰涅亞故事的結局。“我們已經發現了在這場襲擊發生之后200年有人在那里居住的證據,但看起來泰涅亞已經失去了很多財富,” 拉各斯繼續說,對那一時期的考古發現并不像最輝煌時期那么宏偉或有價值。“但在那一時期之后,就什么都沒有了。”

The car climbed up a winding road, giving us spectacular views over the mountains and the plain under which Tenea rests. We stopped at a beautiful, crumbling Byzantine-era monastery. “We know the Slavs invaded this area around that time. We believe the people of Tenea abandoned the city and fled to these hills here,” he said, gesturing around us. The Slavic tribes are known to have raided the area and violently clashed with local communities, so it seems Tenea’s residents judged the hills to be safer. There were many streams around the city, and with no-one to attend to them they covered the city in silt, which eventually turned to earth and covered the city.

汽車沿著一條蜿蜒的道路爬升,我們看到了山脈和平原,景色壯麗,它們的下面就掩埋著泰涅亞古城。我們在一座美麗卻搖搖欲墜的拜占庭時代的修道院停了下來。“我們知道斯拉夫人(Slavs)大約在那個時代入侵了這里。我們相信泰涅亞人拋棄了城市,逃到這附近的山上,”拉各斯指著周邊對我們說。就我們所知,斯拉夫部落襲擊了這個地區,并與當地人發生暴力戰爭,所以泰涅亞的居民認為山區更安全。泰涅亞城周圍有很多河流,沒有人治理,于是淤泥沖進城市,變成泥土,最終淹沒了城市。

Tenea’s discovery has answered many mysteries already, such as where the city was located and perhaps why it was abandoned. But for the team, the most exciting thing is what it still may hold. They are expecting to find more houses, temples, a theatre and a marketplace – known in Ancient Greek as an agora – over the coming years. “It’s like an iceberg and we’re just hitting the tip,” Lagos said. “It’s going to keep giving interesting findings for the next 100 years.”

泰涅亞的發現已經解開了許多謎團,比如這座城市位于何處,以及為何被遺棄。但對科爾卡團隊來說,最興奮的莫過于古城還留下了什么。他們希望在未來幾年能找到更多的房屋、寺廟、劇院和古希臘語稱之為“阿果拉”(agora)的城市廣場。“這就像一座冰山,我們剛剛觸碰到一角,”拉各斯說,“在未來的100年里,關于古城將繼續會有有趣的發現”。

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